Masyarakat Beradat yang Beradab di Minangkabau

Di dalam luhak nan tigo lareh nan duo …. Adapun adat yang terpakai oleh orang tua-tua turun temurun di dalam luhak nan tigo lareh nan duo, adalah empat perkara:

1.    Adat yang sebenar adat

2.    Adat yang diadatkan

3.    Adat yang teradat

4.    Adat istiadat

 

1.    Adat yang sebenar adat

Adapun yang dikatakan adat yang sebenar adat ialah : yang diterima dari nabi Muhammad SAW. Sepanjang tersebut di dalam kitab Allah (Al-Qur’an) artinya yang sepanjang di dalam syara’: Di situlah diambil Shah dan Batal; Halal dan Haram; Sunat dan Fardhu; Dakwa dan Jawab: Saksi dan Bainah di situ diambil Fiil perbuatan dalam menentapkan pelanggaran pelanggaran dan suruhan suruhan … Karena adat itu berdasarkan kepada Kitab Allah (Al Quran) dan yang diterima dari Rasulullah Muhammad SAW artinya sepanjang syara’ maka dia menjadi tidak lakang dek paneh dan indak lapuak dek hujan ….  Kecuali kalau diubah dari Kitabullah dan Sunnah Rasulullah SAW, mako dio nyo tidak termasuk kedalam kategori adat yang sebenar adat lagi ….

2.    Adat yang diadatkan

Yang Dimasukkan kedalam Adat yang diadatkan ialah yang diterima daripada ketentuan atau kesepakatan dari Datuk Ketumanggungan dan Datuak Parpatiah nan Sabatang. Dari sini diterima Cupak Nan Duo;  Kato nan ampek;  Undang-undang Nan Ampek;  Nagari nan Ampek  … yang selanjutnya dari  Adat yang di adatkan ini berkembang hukum adat itu … Jadi kesimpulan nya hokum adat di kaji bukan dari Adat yang sebenar adat, sebab itu sudah duduk soalnya yaitu Kitabullah dan Sunnah Rasul yang disepati sebagai adagium ABSSBK …

3.    Adat yang teradat

Yang dikatakan Yang Ter Adat ialah yang tepakai di dalam Se-luak ataupun di dalam Sa-lareh atau di dalam nan Sa-nagari ialah yang dinamakan. Cupak nan Sapanjang Batuang. Di situlah terpakai Pepatah orang tuo-tuo. Dimana batang Taguliang di situlah Langik dijunjuang. Dimano Nagari di Tunggui Disitulah Adat dipakai.

4.    Adat istiadat

Yang dikatakan Istiadat ialah adat tradisi yang di antaranya ada yang masih jelas jelas  jahiliah yang terlarang di dalam nan sabana adat, seperti : manyabuang, berjudi, Bagalanggang. Basorak-sorak, Basorai-sorai, Basaluang  Barabab dan lain-lainnya yang melanggar “adat nan sabana adat” mesti dibuang dan dihapuskan … diganti atau dicari padanan nan sasuai jo adaik nan sabana adaik (syarak = agamo Islam) itu …..

Contoh kecil, urang Luhak 50 Koto atau Luhak nan Bongsu kini ma anta “antaran” oleh kaum ibu (bundo kanduang) dengan memakai salendang (tutup kapalo) berwarna putih (yang terbuat dari telekung atau mukenah), dan bagi orang di Kubung Solok Salayo memakai kain berwarna hitam (yang terbuat dari kain sarung … Semuanya itu telah menjadi adat istiadat di nagari itu masieng masing … yang sebenarnya didalamnya dibimbing oleh “adaik nan sabana adaik” juo yakni “perangkat shalat” …

Apa artinya ???

Semestinya bagaimanapun kita melaksanakan adat istiadat maka yang namanya tuntunan agamo atau syariat Islam indak bulieh tingga ….

Pertanyaan sekarang  adakah itu dijalankan ???

Ini bukannya adat istiadat yang salah …

Mungkin saja orang yang melakukan adat istiadat itu yang tidak betul lagi ….

Sebagai penambah …. coba pula direnungkan ;

Anggang lalu atah jatuah,

balam sadundun jo barabah,

Panghulu kalau takicuah,

Anak kamanakan namuah tajuah.

Alah bauriah bak sipasan,

kok bakiek alah bajajak,

muluik panghulu nak nyo masin,

pandai bagaua jo rang banyak.

Alah bauriah bak sipasan,

kok bakiek alah bajajak,

mangingek putaran musim,

sandi adaik jan dianjak.

Adaik dunia baleh mambaleh,

adaik tapuak jawek manjawek,

sipaik (sifat perangai) dubalang kalau tapakai,

banyak rakyaik ka ma upek (mengumpat).

Penghulu dan pemimpin yang pandai mendekati dan menggauli masyarakatnya jua yang akan menjadi pemimpin yang disegani dan berwibawa ….

Penghulu adalah pemimpin yang sifatnya lunak lembut ramah tamah yang akan disukai rakyatnya.

Kalau pemimpinnya pemarah dan suka main hakim sendiri tidak menimbang dengan benar, tidak mengukur dengan cupak dan aturan, tidaklah akan disukai oleh rakyat banyak.

Inilah kaidah hidup dalam alam takambang jadi guru yang dipaterikan oleh ABS-SBK dengan akhlaqul karimah …

Akmalul Mukminina imaanan ahsanuhum khuluqan

artinya ;

“yang paling sempurna iman seorang mukmin itu adalah yang baik akhlaknya” (Hadist Shahih) …

Bagaimanapun suasana berubah dan musim selalu berganti, sesuai pesan syariat dari Rasulullah SAW “Inna az-zamaan qad istadara = ingatlah bahwa zaman selalu berbah dan musim senantiasa berganti” (pesan Rasulullah di dalam Khutbah Wada’) maka pemimpin atau penghulu mesti tetap menjadi seorang yang membela kebenaran …. Alhaqqu min rabbika …

Penghulu dan pemimpin dalam semua tingkatan yang mudah dipengaruhi orang lain, niscaya akan membawa akibat kehancuran kepada masyarakat yang dipimpinnya.

Sisiaknyo tanaman tabu,

dikesoang mangko dicabuik,

lataknyo condoang kakida.

Sungguahpun kawek nan dibantuak,

ikan dilauik nan diangan.

Samo sapaham sahakikat,

samo saujuik sapangana.

Pemimpin mestinya sama-sama merasa bertanggung jawab moral terhadap kepentingan bersama.

Seorang penghulu tidak boleh pemarah, senjata tidak boleh dipergunakan untuk menikam, kalau tidak pada tempatnya.

… Akhirnya, barangsiapa yang memperbaiki hubungannya dengan Allah, pasti Allah akan memperbaiki keadaannya, pasangan hidupnya, keluarganya dan anak turunannya.  Karena  Allah Subhanahu Wata’ala berfirman : “ Barangsiapa yang bertaqwa kepada Allah niscaya Dia akan mengadakan baginya jalan ke luar.” (QS. At-Thalaq :2). Sairieng dengan itu Wahyu Allah menyambung dengan peringatan berikut ; “ Dan barangsiapa yang bertaqwa kepada Allah niscaya Allah menjadikan baginya kemudahan dalam urusannya.” (QS. At-Thalaq :4)

Pesan Allah ini amatlah jelas, “Bertakwalah kepada Allah Subhanahu Wata’ala” dan “jangan gegabah dalam urusan”  termasuk dalam “ber-kasih sayang berumah tangga dan beranak pinak”..

Karena boleh jadi sesudah itu Allah akan mengadakan sesuatu yang baru.

Jika ada saran untuk mengatasi hal yang terangkum dalam menghindari segala sesuatu yang bisa menjadi pemicu berkurangnya kasih sayang atau berbedanya tanggung jawab dalam menjaga masyarakatnya, maka  para ulama dan tokoh masyarakat di setiap desa dan kota, kerabat dan keluarga besar harus bekerja keras untuk mengatasi konflik di tengah tengah kehidupan yang di awali dari setiap  rumah tangga  melalui lembaga-lembaga pendamai yang berwenang dan beranggotakan orang-orang yang disegani dan dihormati serta  senantiasa menjaga ibadahnya kepada Allah Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala.

Sehingga setiap  menghadapi masalah orang dapat memohon nasihat ke sana.

Dengan demikian diharapkan kasus-kasus ‘AIA GADANG SAMPAN TAK ANYUIK’  ini dapat berkurang, dengan izin Allah jua.

Yang jelas  BERANAK TENTU TIDAK SAMA DENGAN BERTERANAK ….  

Ungkapan kearifan bahasa Minangkabau ini memang memiliki pandangan yang jauh meretas sanubari orang orang yang menghadapi masalah dalam hidupnya.

Dibao ribuik dibao angin,

dibao langau dibao pikek,

barih balabeh kok tabungin,

urek tunggang namuah tabukek.

Alah bauriah bak sipasan, kok bakiek alah bajajak, muluik panghulu nak nyo masin, pandai bagaua jo rang banyak. Mandakeklah ka surau, jan talampau banyak duduak di lapau

Alah bauriah bak sipasan, kok bakiek alah bajajak, mangingek putaran musim, sandi adaik jan dianjak. Dibao ribuik dibao angin, dibao langau dibao pikek, barih balabeh kok tabungin, urek tunggang namuah tabukek. Maka berpegang teguhlah kepada Kitabullah yakni Al Quranul Karim

Anggang lalu atah jatuah, balam sadundun jo barabah, Panghulu kalau takicuah, Anak kamanakan namuah tajuah.

Sisiaknyo tanaman tabu, dikesoang mangko dicabuik, lataknyo condoang kakida. Sungguahpun kawek nan dibantuak, ikan dilauik nan diangan. Samo sapaham sahakikat, samo saujuik sapangana. Akhiraik nan bakaja … Biasokan anak-anak jo sumbayang, aja ba tauhid sarato iman, Santoso di dunia jo di akhiraik juo sanang, lapeh utang mandeh sarato ayah nan ka pulang.

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